On 11 November 1918 Poland regains independence. Reintroduction of Polish statehood to the territories which for 123 years were occupied by neighbouring states – Austria, Prussia and Russia - proves a great challenge. In 1850-1900 the Polish culture develops in spite of unfavourable conditions. Created are outstanding literary and painted works which today constitute the canon of artistic heritage. The interwar period witnesses unification of the society, construction of a democratic state structure and a foundation of a modern economy.