Crusades in the Holy Land

The Crusades were armed pilgrimages led by Western Christians to reclaim the Holy Land from the Muslims.  Preached by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, the first crusade led to the taking of Jerusalem in 1099 and the founding of the Crusader States. Seven more crusades were led between the 12th and 13th centuries, attempting, more or less successfully, to consolidate acquired territories. Despite their final failure, the crusades provided opportunities for multiple exchanges and deeply influenced European history and the eastern world.